Published surveys and studies and ETS’ viewpoint on the hygiene benefits of tissue.

Environmental contamination by bacteria in hospital washrooms according to hand-drying method: a multicentre study (E. Best, P. Parnell, J. Couturier, F. Barbut, A. Le Bozec, L. Arnoldo, A. Madia, S. Brusaferro, M.H. Wilcox, published on The Journal of Hospital Infections, July 2018)

  • Read more on the Multi-centre hospital study

Deposition of Bacteria and Bacterial Spores by Bathroom Hot Air Hand Dryers (University of Connecticut, Feb. 2018)

  • Read more on the University of Connecticut study)

Evaluation of the potential for virus dispersal during hand drying: a comparison of three methods (University of Westminster, peer reviewed study, Dec. 2015, published on the “Journal of Applied Microbiology)

Comparison of different hand drying methods the potential for airborne microbe dispersal and contamination (University of Westminster peer reviewed study 2015)

  • Read more on University of Westminster peer reviewed study

Microbiological comparison of hand drying methods: the potential for contamination of the environment, user and bystander (Leeds University peer reviewed study 2014)

  • read more on Leeds University peer reviewed study

Alcohol based disinfectant vs hand washing which fights noroviruses better (peer reviewed article 2015)

Eurofins-Inlab study: measured the microorganisms in washrooms equipped with different hand drying systems (2012)

“Intermetra Survey” – Multi-country survey of the consumers’ attitudes to different hand drying systems










“Westminster University 2010 Study” – A comparative scientific study of four different hand drying methods: paper towel, continuous roller towel, warm air dryer, jet air dryer.

“Westminster University 2008 Study” – A comparative scientific study of three different hand drying methods: paper towel, warm air dryer, jet air dryer.

Mayo Clinic Proceedings: a review of the evidence published in 2012

TUV Studies comparing the hygiene of different methods for drying the hands



The Handwashingforlife Institute is devoted to advancing the science of hand hygiene with the purpose of reducing the incidence of food borne illness and nosocomial infections caused by poor hand hygiene. It is a global organization in support of solving the common hand hygiene challenges around the world.


 University of Erlangen  – Hygiene evaluation of tissue handkerchief for nose cleaning –(1994)

Comparative tests revealed that tissue handkerchiefs used for nose cleaning contained considerably less bacteria than conventional textile handkerchiefs. The results applied also to pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Tissue handkerchiefs are – in terms of hygiene and prevention from infection – significantly better than textile handkerchiefs.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae

Guidance Personnel and Personal Hygiene
ETS – Official Recommendations, October 2011
CampdenBRI – Personal hygiene