List of Publications reviewed during Expert Panel Meeting on Hygienic Hand Drying
20 March 2013 at the University of Leuven
Introduction to ETS: See: http://europeantissue.com/
General literature on hand washing and drying
1. Bloomfield, Aiello, Cookson, Boyle & Larson, “The Effectiveness of Hand Hygiene
Procedures in Reducing the Risks of Infections in Home and Community Settings Including
Handwashing and Alcohol-based Hand Sanitizers,” Am. J. Infect. Control 35 (2007), S27-64.
2. Gould, “The Significance of Hand-Drying in the Prevention of Infection,” Nursing Times,
90(47) (November 23, 1994);
3. Patrick, Findon & Miller, “Residual Moisture Determines the Level of Touch-Contact
Associated Bacteria Transfer Following Hand Washing,” Epidemiology & Infection 119( 3) (1997),
4. Yamamoto, Ugai & Takashashi, “Efficiency of Hand Drying for Removing Bacteria from
Washed Hands: Comparison of Paper Towel Drying with Warm Air Drying” Infection Control and
Hospital Epidemiology, 316 (March 2005);
5. Evaluation of bacterial contaminants found on unused paper towels and possible post
contamination after Handwashing: A pilot study. Louis McCusky Gendron BSc, Luc Trudel BSc,
Sylvain Moineau PhD, Caroline Duchaine PhD. American Journal of Infection Control – (2011)
6. The Hygienic Efficacy of Different Hand-Drying Methods: A Review of the Evidence.
Cunrui Huang, MMed, MSPH; Wenjun Ma, MD, MPH; and Susan Stack, BBus Mayo Clin Proc.
1. Study of the Consumers’ Attitudes to Different Hand-drying Systems for European Tissue
Symposium June 2008 by INTERMETRA
2. TUV Produkt und Umwelt GmbH, Report No. 425-452006 Concerning a Study Conducted
with Regard to the Different Methods Used for Drying Hands (September 2005) (Study requested
by the German Pulp and Paper Association (VdP).
3. TÜV Rheinland LGA Products GmbH Report No. 3026520 on the completion of a comparative
study on hand drying with paper towels and high speed air flow hand driers August 2011 (Study
requested by the German Pulp and Paper Association (VdP).
4. HAND DRYING: AN ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY AND HYGIENE OF DIFFERENT METHODS A
SURVEY CARRIED OUT BY THE APPLIED ECOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP, UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER
FOR THE ASSOCIATION OF MAKERS OF SOFT TISSUE PAPERS 26 JULY 1993.
5. HAND DRYING: A STUDY OF BACTERIAL TYPES ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT HAND DRYING
METHODS AND WITH HOT AIR DRIERS Keith Redway, Brian Knights, Zoltan Bozoky, Abigail Theobald
and Sophie Hardcastle THE APPLIED ECOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP, UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER,
The Association of Makers of Soft Tissue Papers January 1994.
6. Keith Redway and Brian Knights, Hand Drying: Studies of the Hygiene and Efficiency of
Different Hand Drying Methods, Summary of Hand Drying Studies University of Westminster (October 1998).
7. A comparative study of four different hand drying methods: paper towel, continuous roller
towel, warm air dryer, jet air dryer. Keith Redway & Shameem Fawdar, School of Life Sciences,
University of Westminster, London. 2010
8. The potential for the transmission of contamination on the hands by different hand-drying
devices Keith Redway, Sheila Azouji & Luisa Pitzulu, Department of Biomedical Sciences, School
of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London. November 2012-
9. Snelling, Saville, Stevens &Beggs, “Comparative evaluation of the hygienic efficacy of an
ultra-rapid hand dryer vs. conventional warm air hand dryers,” Journal of Applied Microbiology
10. Confidential Kimberly-Clark Interpretive Report 35101 – shows contact of users hand with the
inside of jet air driers during use.
11. Eurofins 2012 study: Protocol used, summary of test results (Excel spread sheet), statistical
analysis and review of results by Professor Mark Wilcox –
12. Leeds University study under the supervision of Prof Mark Wilcox: Assessment of micro-
organisms released into the air during hand drying –
Hand drying Guidance
1. WHO Poster on Hand Hygiene to Prevent Flu, available on the Internet at
2. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Personal Protective Measures
(Non-pharmaceutical) for Reducing the Risk of Acquiring or Transmitting Human Influenza,
available on the Internet at
3. World Health Organization, WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, First
Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care is Safer Care (2009).
4. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Personal Protective Measures
(Non-Pharmaceutical) for Reducing the Risk of Acquiring or Transmitting Human Influenza,
and other topics, available on the Internet at
5. Summary of Various Bodies’ Official Recommendations On Hand Drying: Paper Towels, Cloth
Towels and Electric Hand Dryers prepared for ETS by Covington and Burling – October 2011.
Note that this covers advice that is positive for the use of paper hand towels and does not include
those countries that fail to give advice on hand drying.
6. Personnel and personal hygiene – issued by the Campden BRI.
Once you have reached the page, please click on “free download”, an email will open, send it after having written in the subject: “send hygiene”, and you will automatically be mailed the study by return email.